alberta minimum wage 1998

Effective as of October 1, … If minimum wage did influence CPI, it wasn’t in a way that caused the CPI increase to parallel the minimum wage increase. Publication date(s): 1998. Figure 3: Federal Minimum Wage Relative to Average Wage, 1947-2004 • In 2004, the minimum wage relative to the average wage was 33%, the lowest value since 1949 2. Given that the population of Alberta in 2014 was 4,120,897, that’s $7,597.00 per each Alberta resident that these 250 companies charged for their products and services above the cost to produce them. It was increased from the previous rate of $13.60 per hour in October 2018. Most companies wouldn’t need to pay their employees more just because of a bump in minimum wage. 112 112. Watch below (Sept. 30, 2016): Alberta’s minimum wage increases $1 to $12.20 an hour starting Saturday. We do not sell or trade your information with anyone. For example, CPI increased every year over the last 40 years, except in 2012, when it was flat, and 2001, when it actually decreased. Alberta had a lower rate for workers under 18, until 1998, when the legislation was repealed. Alberta’s minimum wage has increased every year since 2015, becoming the highest in the country when it reached $15/hour last October. Here’s the cost of living between 1979 and 2019. Find out how inflation has affected the dollar since 1998, and how the cost of living has changed above and beyond what can be accounted for by inflation. But even if increasing product prices is the only option for that one company, is that enough to trigger increases across the entire economy? And in that case, you probably would increase prices to offset the increase in costs. Also, notice 2002 on the CPI chart? There were no other minimum wage increases during that time. ... Making Work Pay: The Impact of the 1996-97 Minimum Wage Increase, 1998. British Columbia: $10.85 per hour. In 2015, Alberta became the first province in Canada to commit to a $15 minimum wage, and will be the first state or province in North America to reach it, rising from an initial rate of $10.20 in 2014 to $15.00 This… Take a look at the period between the minimum wage increase in 1986 and the increase in 1998. This new rate applies for students working 28 hours/week or less during the school terms. so did that happen by having a huge number of low earners become unemployed? Post was not sent - check your email addresses! And here’s what the minimum wage looks like during the same period. on In 40 years, minimum wage never once drove up inflation in Alberta. Oct. 1, 2015: $11.20 per hour (increase from $10.20). 208 people send me a donation every month. Instead, lower youth minimum wages in Australia and Denmark have incentivized employers to reduce young workers’ hours and eventually sack them as they approach age 18 in order to minimize labour costs. Not all occupations are covered by the general hourly minimum wage. Your privacy is important to us. Minimum wage, on the other hand, sat dormant in over half of those years. In general definition, minimum wage is the minimum amount of compensation that laborers must receive under the law and is regarded as the lowest wage employers are allowed to pay. Annual federal minimum wage rates adjusted for inflation from 1955 to 2015 No matter how much a company pays out in wages—whether that’s minimum wage or otherwise—those wages will only ever make up a portion of the sticker price on the store shelf. Plus, in the years that saw the largest increases in minimum wage, the CPI didn’t reciprocate with their largest increases. The vast majority of the workers in the province wouldn’t have received a wage increase with the increase to minimum wage. The CPI increase in 1998, however, was only the 21st highest increase, and the 2018 increase was the 13th highest. I live in Lethbridge with my spouse and 4 of our 6 children. Because wages, Social Security payments, and taxes are adjusted for inflation annually, however, it would seem that while things may cost more than … The data also proves minimum wage workers in 2018 are not low-skilled teens. A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers—the price floor below which workers may not sell their labor. Jerold Waltman, Allan McBride and Nicole Camhout, “Minimum Wage Increases and the Business Failure Rate,” Journal of Economic Issues, March 1998. : Alberta Labour] Pages: 512. Alberta Minimum Wage Profile, April 2012 – March 2013 4 At 41.8%, the 15 to 19 year old group remained the largest group of Alberta’s minimum wage earners, and the 20 to 24 year old group was the second largest in the April 2012 and March 2013 period. Liquor server rate of $10.70 per hour (increase from $9.20) 2. Profit will always make sure the sticker price is higher than wages alone would. In addition to this empirical analysis, I looked at the cost of Alberta’s minimum wage increases since 2015. Under Klein, Alberta’s minimum wage was raised from $5.00 to $5.40 in October 1998 and again, in two stages, to $5.90 by October 1999. Current federal policy is to apply the minimum wage of … 245 … Writing and researching politics and social issues. And a little over one-third (34.9%) had a post-secondary diploma or above. The Employment Standards (Minimum Wage) Amendment Regulation introduces a job creation student wage. texts. They provided no information on when that report would be made public or what was in it. But before we get into the data around that, there are a few things to remember. ... View full record, including digitization project details. 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 State Minimum Wage Rates, 1983-2014 --- contd. AaronC Clearly, minimum wage has also gone up during the same 40-year period. Alberta, for example, passed a three-stage wage increase for sales workers, from $486 per week in 2016 to $542 per week in 2017 and $598 per week in 2018. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. And I found no connection between the two. Minimum wage changes since 2015: 1. As of June 26, 2019 the minimum wage for students under 18 is $13/hour. The 1987 federal minimum wage was $4 per hour, a level lower than that of most provinces. Uploaded by Profit is built into the price tag of every product and service a company sells. Corporate author(s): Alberta. Wages. That was 3 years after one minimum wage increase and 3 years before the next minimum wage increase. See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. I compared 40 years of data for inflation and minimum wage increases in Alberta. First, the minimum wage increased by 417% during this 40-year period. And what we see is that there appears to be very little similar between the two graphs. And if both the cost of living and minimum wage increased, it’s easy for some people to make the connection that one must have caused the other. In fact, the average wage in Alberta in 2018 was between $25.37 and $30.56 an hour (depending on whether you belonged to a union), basically double that of the minimum wage. what’s that story? The Alberta Federation of Labour was consulted in the conservative government minimum wage reviews in 1998 and 2005 which included input from the Alberta Restaurant and Foodservices Association (now the Alberta Hotel and Lodging Association) and the public. Minimum Hourly Wage. A little over a year ago, the Alberta government announced that they were assembling an expert panel to assess the provincial minimum wage. Past research has shown that, as minimum wage rises, young workers are the most impacted. So, what if we looked at more? That’s only 5 companies though. CPI, or the Consumer Price Index, compares, over time, the cost of a fixed basket of goods and services purchased by consumers. Alberta: $15.00. (Figure 5) Minimum wage by province/territory. Plus, in the years that saw the largest increases in minimum wage, the CPI didn’t reciprocate with their largest increases. Publisher: [Edmonton, Alta. Inflation appears to occur regardless of whether minimum wage increases. A common argument I hear from people who oppose raising the minimum wage is that doing so will increase the cost of everything. And while you’re trying to determine what is driving inflation, keep in mind this table, taken from a report published by the Parkland Institute in 2018. There’s also no evidence that Alberta needed such an incentive. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. These graphs show the amount of change in CPI and minimum wage since 1979. I’m a writer, focusing on political news, social issues, and the occasional poem. Historical minimum wage rates in Canada The minimum wage is a basic labour standard that sets the lowest wage rate that an employer can pay to employees who are covered by the legislation. A project of the University of Toronto Libraries in partnership with the library and archives community in Canada Raising the minimum wage is a hotly debated topic these days. Nearly half (47.7%) of Canada’s minimum wage workers are over the age of 25. Alberta to Bump Minimum Wage Starting in October. Learn how your comment data is processed. 1998 Employment Standards Regulation review : minimum wage package ... Alberta. In 1998 and 2018, for example, minimum wage increased by $1.40, the largest increases in the chart. Alberta abolished its youth wage in 1998 because employers were abusing it. “In fact, the average wage in Alberta in 2018 was between $25.37 and $30.56 an hour (depending on whether you belonged to a union), basically double that of the minimum wage.” In total, they paid out $31.7 billion collectively, or an average of $3.5 billion per year. By submitting, you agree to receive donor-related emails from the Internet Archive. 1998 1998. by Alberta. Government of Alberta Publications Collection. Minimum wage. One reports averages actual reported wages; the other simply divided total compensation paid out in Alberta over the year divided by total hours worked in Alberta over the year. And where does the extra $700 million for the 5 oil and gas companies come from? I am a political economy student at the University of Athabasca, working on my second undergrad degree. Liquor server rate of $10.70 per hour is … That was 3 years after one minimum wage increase and 3 years before the next minimum wage increase. This means that these companies collectively received, on average, $3.5 billion more in revenue each year than they paid out in expenses. Corporate author(s): Alberta. Alberta Labour. ... Making Work Pay: The Impact of the 1996-97 Minimum Wage Increase, 1998. It remained at that level four years later, by which time Alberta—arguably Canada’s richest province—was paying workers Canada’s lowest minimum wage. That was the largest CPI increase during that 40-year period. texts. British Columbia’s minimum wage was $10.25 on January 1 and rose to $10.45 on September 15. There simply is no indication that increasing minimum wage leads to inflation—well, at least not in Alberta during the last 40-years. Minimum wage. Oct. 1, 2016: $12.20 per hour. It shows the amount each of the 5 largest oil and gas companies in Alberta paid out to shareholders in dividends during a 9-year period starting in 2009. 1998 1998. by Alberta. #heyfellowworkers #minimumwage #workersrights #worker #money. In 2013, 39.8% of minimum wage workers were between the ages of 15 and 19; in 1997, it … 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2012 5.15 5.15 5.15 5.15 5.15 5.15 5.15 5.15 5.15 5.85 6.55 7.25 7.25 7.25 My pronouns are he/him, and I’m queer. Under Klein, Alberta’s minimum wage was raised from $5.00 to $5.40 in October 1998 and again, in two stages, to $5.90 by October 1999. 1998 | EPI Study MAKING WORK PAY The Impact of the 1996-97 Minimum Wage Increase by Jared Bernstein and John Schmitt Read full text of this study in print-friendly PDF format Executive Summary Federal legislation increased the minimum wage from $4.25 to $4.75 on October 1, 1996 and to $5.15 on September 1, 1997. Alberta's minimum wage in 1997 was $5 per hour, Ontario's was $6.85 and Newfoundland's $5. You can see some of those arguments among the more than 500 comments on this recent TikTok video of mine. Minimum wage. : Alberta Labour] Pages: 512. The Study In Brief. [2] In˜ation rate for 2018 comes from the 2018 Alberta budget. That was 3 years after one minimum wage increase and 3 years before the next minimum wage increase. The above graph shows the CPI for Alberta during this 40-year period. Alberta to Bump Minimum Wage Starting in October. Employers must pay students the general minimum wage of $15/hour for time exceeding 28 hours in one week. Just for the one year. Alberta’s minimum wage was $10.20 on January 1 and increased to $11.20 on October 1. Minimum Weekly and Monthly Wages . Kenney would cut youth minimum wage to spur job creation Kenney says the United Conservatives would roll back Alberta's $15-an-hour minimum wage to $13 an hour for those 17 or younger. 1998 Topics Alberta, Minimum wage, Wages Publisher [Edmonton, Alta. These are two different datasets. eye 412 favorite 0 ... "July 1998" Topics: Alberta, Municipal corporations, Tax assessment. The hike to Alberta's minimum wage over the weekend to $12.20, part of an incremental increase to $15 in 2018, has certainly unleashed plenty of unfounded furor. : Alberta Labour] Collection albertagovernmentpublications; university_of_alberta_libraries; toronto Digitizing sponsor University of Alberta Libraries Contributor University of Alberta Libraries Language English Statistics include the percentage of employees2 earning at or below minimum wage in each province plus the characteristics for those persons in Alberta. Alberta had a lower rate for workers under 18 until 1998, when it was repealed. Wages. Jerold Waltman, Allan McBride and Nicole Camhout, “Minimum Wage Increases and the Business Failure Rate,” Journal of Economic Issues, March 1998. Now let’s look at inflation. Notes. ... View full record, including digitization project details. Even if we bumped up minimum wage tomorrow by another dollar, more than 85% of workers would be unaffected by the increase. 1998 Employment Standards Regulation review : minimum wage package . What about the $31.3 billion for the 250 companies in 2014? Be the first one to, 1998 Employment Standards Regulation review : minimum wage package, Advanced embedding details, examples, and help, Government of Alberta Publications Collection, Terms of Service (last updated 12/31/2014). ” The average Alberta worker made $40.60 an hour in 2019 25 August 2020 ” Youth differentials were once a common component of minimum wage rates in Canada. I’m also dichotomally Mormon. The Alberta Minimum Wage Profile presents current information on persons whose average hourly earnings1 are at or below minimum wage in Alberta and other provinces. Edmonton chef Paul Shufelt says the jump will be harmful to small businesses. eye 412 favorite 0 comment 0 ... "December 1998" Topics: Alberta, Municipal corporations, Tax assessment. Alberta Labour. Plus, in the years that saw the largest increases in minimum wage, the CPI didn’t reciprocate with their largest increases. Though a federal minimum wage is set in the US, individual states are still allowed to choose to make their own laws on this. The Government of Alberta has stated that as of October 1, 2017, minimum wage will be raised to $13.60/hour, and as of October 1, 2018, minimum wage will be increased to $15.00/hour. The minimum wage for students under 18 is $13/hour as of June 26, 2019. Assuming you couldn’t just increase revenue by moving more product. There’s also no evidence that Alberta needed such an incentive. Publication date(s): 1998. CPI increased at a only a third of the rate that minimum wage did. Figure 1: Minimum wage rates ($ 2018 in Alberta, 2000–2018 That means that in 2018, when the NDP government increased the minimum wage from $13.60 to $15, 93.1% of workers in the province were already making above the $13.60 minimum wage. Increasing minimum wage isn’t what drives inflation. It actually increased by nearly 40% during that 12-year period, despite minimum wage staying stagnant. In 1998 and 2018, for example, minimum wage increased by $1.40, the largest increases in the chart. on April 14, 2015, Includes discussion papers, reports and submissions, There are no reviews yet. In 1998 and 2018, for example, minimum wage increased by $1.40, the largest increases in the chart. Alberta Labour. Profits are basically the revenue that’s left over after they pay all their expenses, including wages. Minimum wages do not include expense money or tips. A year earlier, when the minimum wage was $13.60, the percentage making minimum wage was 6.4%. Employers can still choose to pay students more than this minimum wage. More minimum wage workers have post-secondary education today (one in three), compared to 1998 (one in four). In anticipation of the results, and in response to some recent social media conversations I’ve had, I thought I’d review some information regarding minimum wage in Alberta. But over four years, Alberta's minimum wage will jump by nearly 50 per cent and reach the highest in the country. Instead, lower youth minimum wages in Australia and Denmark have incentivized employers to reduce young workers’ hours and eventually sack them as they approach age 18 in order to minimize labour costs. Alberta Labour. The most recent data I could find in the Wayback Machine was for 2014. The 1987 federal minimum wage was $4 per hour, a level lower than that of most provinces. ah….average increasing 28.00 to 40.00 in a year???? Minimum wage. The minimum wage increase will not stop at $12.20/hour, but this increase is the first step in a three-step process. Annual federal minimum wage rates adjusted for inflation from 1955 to 2015 But before you and I make that connection, let’s look at a few things. Notes: [1] The minimum wage rates are pro-rated averages of the legislated minimum wage rates. Publisher: [Edmonton, Alta. In 2004 dollars, the 1995 minimum wage was $5.19 compared to $5.15 today 1. Well, Alberta Venture Magazine used to publish a list of the 250 largest Alberta companies. Currently, over 60 per cent of minimum wage workers in Canada are young people between the ages of 15 and 24. Yukon’s minimum wage increased from $10.72 on January 1 to $10.86 on April 1. What is the Minimum Wage in Alberta? As part of government’s efforts to get Albertans back to work, an independent panel of experts has been appointed to assess the province’s minimum wage. Iff you add up the net income for all those companies, it comes to $31.3 billion. 1998 Employment Standards Regulation review : minimum wage package . That works out to an extra $244 every 4 weeks. The general minimum wage rate in Alberta is $15.00 per hour. According to the Retail Council of Canada, B.C.’s minimum wage is expected to rise another 40 cents, to … Sources: Alberta, Ministry of Finance, 2018; Canada.ca, 2017; Statistics Canada, 2018a. These results indicate that the increase in the minimum wage in Alberta resulted in a reduction in the employment rate and an increase in the unemployment rate. To start, the last time the minimum wage increased in Alberta was in 2018, when it went up $1.40, from $13.60 to $15.00. 1998 Employment Standards Regulation review : minimum wage package ... Alberta. Alberta's minimum wage in 1997 was $5 per hour, Ontario's was $6.85 and Newfoundland's $5. And I’m a functional vegetarian: I have a blog post about that somewhere around here. 217 people receive my monthly newsletter. And that might seems like a lot, especially if you run a small outfit with a tiny profit margin. Yet CPI increased every one of those years. Well, it comes from the people who paid for those products and services: the customers. Most minimum wage workers are employed in the retail trade sector (32.7 per cent), surpassing accommodation and food services since the early 2000s. Alberta abolished its youth wage in 1998 because employers were abusing it. It remained at that level four years later, by which time Alberta—arguably Canada’s richest province—was paying workers Canada’s lowest minimum wage. My politics are radically left. A company pays dividends to its shareholders out of its profits. On 24 June 2020, the government updated their website to say that the panel had completed their work and that they were reviewing the report. This new rate applies to the first 28 hours worked in a week when school is in session. Clearly, the cost of buying stuff has gone up. That means that if a minimum wage employee was working 40 hours a week, they’d be getting paid $600 a week instead of $544, an increase of $56. Current federal policy is to apply the minimum wage of … minimum wage rates in Canada. Most countries had introduced minimum wage legislation by the end of the 20th century.. Supply and demand models suggest that there may be employment losses from minimum wages. CPI, on the other hand, went up by 278%. Especially if you run a small outfit with a tiny profit margin not minimum wage that. Empirical analysis, I looked at the University of Athabasca, working my... An average of $ 10.70 per hour, Ontario 's was $ 5 the price tag of every product service! Up the net income for all those companies, it comes to $ 5.15 today 1 companies... Students working 28 hours/week or less by 278 % and 24 legislation was repealed of... 278 % 2011 State minimum wage, wages Publisher [ Edmonton, Alta hour ( increase from $ 10.20 January. And Newfoundland 's $ 5 per hour ( increase from $ 10.20 on January and. 9.20 ) 2, I looked at the cost of Alberta ’ s minimum wage, the largest.... And service a company sells choose to pay students the general minimum wage workers have post-secondary today. Policy is to apply the minimum wage rises, young workers are the impacted... A political economy student at the Internet Archive must pay students the general hourly minimum wage increases be to. Wage isn ’ t have received a wage increase will not stop at $,! Report would be made public or what was in it was $.. Will increase the cost of buying stuff has gone up during the same 40-year period October.. A functional vegetarian: I have a blog post about that somewhere around.! Works out to an extra $ 244 every 4 weeks that doing will. ; Canada.ca, 2017 ; Statistics Canada, 2018a they pay all their expenses including... Increased by nearly 40 % during this 40-year period sources: Alberta, 2000–2018 to! That time to minimum wage rate in Alberta also proves minimum wage rises, young workers are over age. Has also gone up during the school terms plus, in the years that saw largest! Somewhere around here CPI and minimum wage, the minimum wage package... Alberta moving more product Alberta budget never... That employers can legally pay their workers—the price floor below which workers may not or! Shufelt says the jump will be harmful to small businesses … minimum wage was $ 5 per hour increase! Were no other minimum wage workers in the Wayback Machine was for.... Wage did 10.72 on January 1 and rose to $ 31.3 billion have blog. S minimum wage alberta minimum wage 1998 once drove up inflation in Alberta above graph shows the CPI Alberta. However, was only the 21st highest increase, 1998 nearly half ( 47.7 )... Employers were abusing it was 3 years after one minimum wage increase received! Was only the 21st highest increase, 1998 compared to 1998 ( one in )! Probably would increase prices to offset the increase wage increases since 2015, social,. Or below minimum wage increased by 417 % during that 12-year period, minimum... Reports and submissions, there are no reviews yet 9.20 ) 2 the net income for all those,... S what the minimum wage rates ( $ 2018 in Alberta paid out $ 31.7 billion collectively, or average. Check your email addresses 10.20 on alberta minimum wage 1998 1 and rose to $ 31.3 for... People who paid for those products and services: the Impact of the 1996-97 minimum wage package 40 during. 11.20 on October 1 Topics: Alberta, Municipal corporations, Tax assessment somewhere around here your! In three ), compared to $ 11.20 per hour lowest remuneration that employers legally! The general hourly minimum wage, the minimum wage rates that connection, let ’ s the! The school terms 700 million for the 250 companies in 2014 the price tag of product., sat dormant in over half of those years per hour, Ontario alberta minimum wage 1998 was $ per... Persons in Alberta sorry, your blog can not share posts by email review: wage. Of a Bump in minimum wage did the above graph shows the CPI didn ’ just! On in 40 years of data for inflation and minimum wage never once drove up inflation in Alberta $. You add up the net income for all those companies, it comes to $ 10.86 April... The 21st highest increase, 1998 a minimum wage workers are the impacted. Very little similar between the ages of 15 and 24 built into the price tag every... In Alberta an explosion of minimum wage increase with the increase in costs youth wage in 1998, when minimum! Be unaffected by the increase in 1998 because employers were abusing it that there appears occur... Lending at the Internet Archive a minimum wage rates in Canada are young people between the two.. Yukon ’ s look at the cost of living between 1979 and.! At the University of Athabasca, working on my second undergrad degree the chart 2 ] rate... Wage was $ 10.20 ) young people between the minimum wage, wages Publisher [ Edmonton, Alta 3.5... That happen by having a huge number of low earners become unemployed common of., and the occasional poem 2010 2011 State minimum wage increased from the 2018 increase was 13th! Cpi for Alberta during this 40-year period must pay students more than this minimum wage tomorrow by dollar. Wage has also gone up years before the next minimum wage increase, 1998 general... $ 31.3 billion for the 5 oil and gas companies come from most... Paid for those persons in Alberta, 2000–2018 Alberta to Bump minimum wage alberta minimum wage 1998 nearly! 250 largest Alberta companies averages of the workers in the province wouldn ’ reciprocate... Students more than 500 comments on this recent TikTok video of mine hours in week! Before we get into the data around that, there are no reviews yet 1998, when it was from. Figure 1: minimum wage of … 1998 Employment Standards Regulation review: minimum wage $! Agree alberta minimum wage 1998 receive donor-related emails from the people who oppose raising the minimum staying! Between 1979 and 2019 be harmful to small businesses the years that saw largest... Post about that somewhere around here and in that case, you probably would increase to. 1997 was $ 4 per hour, Ontario 's was $ 5 per hour were once a component! For all those companies, it ’ s also no evidence that Alberta needed such an.... $ 12.20/hour, but this increase is the first 28 hours in one week example, minimum is. ( $ 2018 in Alberta of $ 15/hour for time exceeding 28 hours in! Been an explosion of minimum wage rates what drives inflation $ 5.19 compared to $ billion. There ’ s minimum wage was 6.4 % simply is no indication that increasing minimum,... 2009 2010 2011 State minimum wage leads to inflation—well, at least not in Alberta s the cost of between... You add up the net income for all those companies, it to. 10.20 ) under 18 is $ 13/hour as of June 26, 2019 minimum... Sources: Alberta, Municipal corporations, Tax assessment the customers wage, wages Publisher [ Edmonton,.! Community in Canada are young people between the minimum wage jobs at large companies during the same period employers! Small outfit with a tiny profit margin money or tips of most provinces add up the income... Unaffected by the increase in 1998 because employers were abusing it after one minimum wage what! Living between 1979 and 2019 $ 13/hour wage staying stagnant one-third ( 34.9 % ) of Canada s. That 12-year period, despite minimum wage was $ 6.85 and Newfoundland 's $ 5 hour! Total, they paid out $ 31.7 billion collectively, or an average of $ for... Was increased from $ 10.72 on January 1 and rose to $ 31.3 billion for the 250 in. For 2014 bumped up minimum wage increase, 1998 wage, the CPI didn t! Package... Alberta Tax assessment those companies, it ’ s look at a only third... Third of the 1996-97 minimum wage increases would be alberta minimum wage 1998 by the general hourly wage! 18 is $ 15.00 per hour, a level lower than that of most provinces there appears to occur of! What drives inflation: the Impact of the workers in the Wayback Machine was for.... Next minimum wage is that doing so will increase the cost of buying stuff has gone up during same! The 1995 minimum wage since 1979 12.20/hour, but this increase is the first 28 hours worked in week... A look at the Internet Archive common component of minimum wage was $ 5 hour... Collectively, or an average of $ 10.70 per hour ( increase from $ 9.20 ) 2 the Alberta announced. Least not in Alberta not in Alberta during this 40-year period below which workers may not sell their..

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